Canada Warbler

Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis)

Canada warbler

Canada warbler./Tom Berriman

General: The males of this forest-dwelling species have black markings on a bright yellow throat and neck, earning this bird the nickname "necklaced warbler." Females are more olive in color and have a less-distinct necklace. Throughout their range, Canada warblers prefer openings in cool, moist, forests that include a mix of hardwood and coniferous trees. They nest in dense understory vegetation, especially along streams and wetlands. Natural disturbances such as strong windstorms and fires create such openings. While Canada warblers commonly use young regrowing vegetation, they also inhabit older forests where the understory remains dense. Canada warblers nest on or within 6 inches of the ground, sometimes in cavities among the roots of toppled trees.

Status: Population trends show a general decline across the species' range. Habitat loss on both the northern breeding range and in the southern wintering area in northern South America may both be responsible. Habitat fragmentation may be another threat, since predation can increase in fragmented forests.

How to Help Canada Warblers: Local populations respond well to forest-management practices that create young forest, especially clearcuts that retain scattered residual trees. Both public and private landowners can make this kind of habitat. The Young Forest Guide explains how.

Click on the map at left to see a larger image.

For more detailed information on this animal, including references to scientific papers, download Under Cover: Wildlife of Shrublands and Young Forest. This publication can also be purchased from the Wildlife Management Institute.

Visit a habitat demonstration area within this species' range to increase your chances of seeing Canada warblers and other wildlife that uses young forest.